Cape Bulbs: Their Collection, Cultivation and Conservation

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The medicinal plants of Myanmar

The Hardy Plant Society Formed in , and renowned for promoting, informing and stimulating interest in growing hardy herbaceous plants. Old Burmese scriptures that contain medical traditions and health problems in addition to religious matters are written in a Burmese alphabet and language than can only be translated with special training. Buddhist monks have translated these scriptures, often written on palm leaves Corypha umbraculifera L. Sesayas are practitioners of local medical traditions whose knowledge has been handed down through their ancestors.

Sesayas and their helpers prepare medicines in laboratories in their own homes. Ambulating medicine men are free lancers that travel from place to place accompanied by an apprentice. Drug traders of the local open-air bazaars are often prepared to share knowledge about the properties of their goods. Ambulating drug traders are mostly Ghurkas people originating from Tibet who would spread their products in the streets for display. Professional drug collectors make their living collecting crude drugs for the drug bazaars and for the sesayas, and they often have extensive and reliable knowledge of the medicinal local flora Nordal Botanical exploration of the Southeast Asian country of Myanmar formerly Burma , which spans both tropical and subtropical biomes, began in the s when the country was under the rule of the British Kress et al.

Botanical investigations of the region sharply decreased soon after World War II. Myanmar is exceptionally rich in plant diversity, but very few new plant collections had been made in this area during the second half of the s Kress et al. The first list of plants specifically for Myanmar was compiled in by J. The original edition includes 2, species, and the last published edition of has about 7, species. Kress et al. The treatment lists over 11, species. The knowledge of the flora is still growing, as the native status of many species is incomplete.

Myanmar occupies an area of , sq. It is bordered by India, Bangladesh, and the Bay of Bengal on the west, China to the north and northeast, Laos and Thailand to the east, and the Andaman Sea to the south. With the exception of the centrally located Ayeyarwady valley and delta, the most populated area, the terrain is generally hilly and mountainous. The climate is mostly monsoonal, with cloudy, rainy, hot humid summers June to September, southwest monsoon and less cloudy, scant rainfall, mild temperatures, lower humidity during the winter December to April, northeast monsoon.

Local climate, which has a major influence on the diversity and distribution of plant species, is determined by the combination of temperature, rainfall, and elevation. Geology and the resultant soils are major controlling factors in the local distribution of forest types and of individual species, although to some extent climate and soil counteract one another Stamp The vegetation consists of tropical lowland evergreen rain forest, primarily in the south; tropical hill evergreen rain forest and temperate evergreen rain forest above m in the east, north, and west; semi-evergreen rain forest in a narrow belt bordering an arid central plain; mixed deciduous forest with teak Tetona grandis and dry dipterocarp forest centrally; coniferous forests in Shan and Chin States, with Pinus khasya between — m on dry slopes; oak and rhododendron forests on wetter slopes; and dry forest and scrub formations where average annual rainfall is below cm.

Additionally, large tracts of bamboo forest are scattered throughout the country. As recently as , Myanmar was nearly three-quarters forested Murphy Myers , quoting Forest Department figures, stated that about sq. The information presented here was compiled utilizing data from written sources and databases on Asian and Myanmar medicinal plants; the Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs, and Climbers of Myanmar , which up-dates the largely unavailable earlier checklists with a more complete treatment of the grasses, orchids, and herbs; and, importantly, the English translation provided by Thi Thi Ta of Burmese Medicinal Plants Agricultural Corporation , an important and extensive book on Burmese medicinal plants, how they are utilized, and their specific preparations.

The families, genera, and species are arranged alphabetically under the following categories: Ferns, Gymnosperms, and Angiosperms. Under each genus, the species are listed under the Latin binomial followed by the author s and synonyms, English and Myanmar common names, global range and approximate distribution in Myanmar including if cultivated , uses in Myanmar for the many species from the newly translated Burmese publication, preparation is also included as well as detailed uses , notes, and references.

The family and genus names utilized here are in accordance with those given as taxa accepted in Angiosperm Phylogeny Website Stevens and The Plant List Synonyms are included when the synonym is used in the original referenced texts. Myanmar distributions presented here are those given by Kress et al. Distributions are based on data from the original list, existing specimens, and estimates from taxonomic specialists. Common names given here come from the various sources, but most are those given in Kress et al.

This list contains families, genera, and species of medicinal plants. Two species are listed as Extinct in the Wild: Brugmansia arborea L. Both species survive only in cultivation, and thus the size of wild populations of these species is zero. Four species are deemed threatened: Coptis teeta Wall. Exploitation, unregulated collection, and forest degradation are the primary threats to these species. Two species are listed as Near Threatened Cycas rumphii Miq.

Of the species that have received national and global assessments, species were deemed threatened 15 Critically Endangered, 31 Endangered, 55 Vulnerable , 66 Near Threatened, Least Concerned, and 29 Data Deficient totals do not add as most species received multiple assessments and were placed in multiple threat categories.

The median number of botanic gardens a medicinal plant species is found in is 18 gardens. Eighteen species are found in only one botanic garden, while species are found in 2—10 botanic gardens. The species found in the greatest number of gardens is Taxus baccata L. Of the threatened species listed in the IUCN Red List, the Endangered species Coptis teeta is found in three botanic gardens and the Endangered Cupressus goveniana is found in 45 botanic gardens. The Vulnerable Aquilaria malaccensis is found in five gardens while the Vulnerable Santalum album is found in 22 gardens.

The number of botanic gardens worldwide that have digitally recorded accessions of each of the medicinal plant species treated in this study. Mounce et al. Further, to reduce the pressures of harvesting plants from wild resources, there are calls for conservation strategies e.

Agricultural Corporation Burmese Medicinal Plants. Agricultural Corporation, Rangoon. Botanic Gardens Conservation International, Richmond. The Botanical Review 83 2 : — Chinese Medicine The Hague, The Netherlands. Asian Life Sciences Suppl. IUCN, Gland. Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 1— Annals of the Missouri Botanic Garden 99 2 : — Nature Plants 3: — Murphy M The geography of Burma.

Journal of Geography 17— Environmentalist 8: 1— Version 7. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia. The Plant List Version 1. Published on the Internet. FAO, Rome, — Research Monograph No. Thacker, Spink and Co. Version 14, July Jordan Royal Botanic Garden, Amman. Higher Education Press, Beijing, China. Myanmar : boktaung, wetkyein. English : brake, braken, hog-pasture brake, pasture brake. Reported constituents include hydrocyanic acid, catechuic tannins, antivitamin B, antivitamin K, and pteridine. The rhizome contains filicic acid, essential oil, resin, some tannin, filicotannic acid, fatty oil, wax, aspidinol, sugar, gum, and starch Perry Nordal Myanmar : myet-sek.

English : weak horsetail. In India the whole plant is used for gonorrhea and as an abortifacient Jain and DeFilipps In China the species is used internally to treat dysentery; also to improve eyesight Duke and Ayensu In Malaysia it is used for pain, especially arthritic pain; in Indonesia it is used externally to treat bruises, fractures, and arthritis; and in Korea, China, Taiwan, and Indo-China it is used internally to treat dysentery Perry Reported constituents of Equisetum include fatty oil, silicic acid, linoleic acid, equisetonine, equisetic acid, and equisetine Perry Whole plant : Used as an antipyretic, antiasthmatic, and anthelmintic.

In Indo-China the plant is considered to be anthelmintic. Plant used for medicinal purposes exact uses not given in Nordal A member of this genus, Cypressus funebris , is used in China to dispel colds; the leaves are antiperiodic and provide a remedy for bleeding piles, hematuria, and menorrhea. In Indo-China another member of the genus, Cypressus hodginsii , is known to have vaso-constrictory and astringent properties Perry Myanmar : mondaing.

English : cycad. Northern Australia and Malay Archipelago. In Myanmar, found in Taninthayi and Yangon. Male bracts : Used as aphrodisiac, narcotic, and stimulant. Fruit or Seed :. Applied to ulcers, wounds including malignant and varicose , skin lesions, and used for various skin diseases. The medicinal uses of this species in India are discussed in Jain and DeFilipps The application may be the poisonous juice of the fruit, the raw seed grated or macerated, or roasted, powdered and mixed with coconut oil Perry Nordal , Perry Myanmar : kyauk-tinyu.

English : yew. Europe, North Africa, western Asia. In Myanmar found in Chin and Shan. Leaf, Fruit : Used as an antispasmodic, sedative, and as an emmenagogue. In India the leaf and fruit are used as an antispasmotic, sedative, and emmenagogue Jain and DeFilipps The leaf is also used as an aphrodisiac; to treat epilepsy, asthma, indigestion, and bronchitis. Other medicinal uses for this species include expectorant, pectoral, sedative, stomachic, tonic; abortifacient, antifertility chemical found in plant shown to be effective for this purpose , contraceptive; for headache, bilious, calculus, for cancer, carminative, cyanogenetic, epilepsy, lithontriptic, medicine Tacholm; giddiness, nerves, spasm; poison, vermifuge, insecticide Duke Myanmar : kaya-chon , kha-yar , kha-yar-chon.

English : holly-leaved acanthus, sea holly. India to Polynesia and Australia. Shoot : Used to treat snakebite. Leaf : Used for rheumatism. The medicinal uses of this species in India are discussed in Jain and DeFilipps as follows: Stem- anti-cancer; root- also anti-cancer, and for chronic fever. Perry discusses the medicinal uses of the species in China, Indo-China, Indonesia, and the Philippines. Perry Myanmar : sega-gyi , se-khar-gyi , hsay-kha gyi , ngayoke kha.

English : creat, creyat root, king of bitters. Subcontinent of India. Cool and bitter in taste, controls phlegm and gall bladder function, stimulates appetite, reduces fever, and is particularly good as a remedy for children. Whole plant : Made into medicines that reduce fever, aid digestion, and give strength. The liquid from boiling the plant is used to treat headaches, indigestion, loose bowels, dysentery, shooting pains from gas in the intestines, and fevers; can also be mixed with powdered zee-hpyu , hpan-khar Terminalia chebula and thit hseint Terminalia bellirica to remedy edema, abdominal swelling, leprosy, headaches, stiff neck, and dizziness.

Leaf : Used in medicines that lower fever, neutralize poisons, and treat the gall bladder, as well as in making of shar-put-hsay commonly used traditional medicine in form of grayish brown powder rolled into nuggets. Leaf and Root : Used as febrifuge, stomachic, tonic and anthelmintic. Medicinal uses of this species in China are discussed in Duke and Ayensu Nordal , Agricultural Corporation , Forest Department South and southeastern Asia, northern Australia, and East Africa.

Root : Considered to be an aphrodisiac. Seed : Used in poultices.

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The bark contains tannin and lapachol Perry Myanmar : leik-su-ywe , leik-hsu shwe , leik tha-shwe war. English : barleria, porcupine flower. Tropical Asia, Africa, and India. Bitter and astringent in taste, highly beneficial for skin and blood diseases. Whole plant : Crushed, cooked with sesame oil and applied to itches, ringworm and boils. Whole plant, Leaf : Used as diuretic in dropsy and as febrifuge. Stem and Leaf : Crushing the leaves together with the stems and branches, stewing them in a mixture of one part sesame oil to two parts water and straining the mixture provides an oil that can be applied to long-standing sores.

Leaf : Made into an ash and taken with fermented rice washing water to bring down swelling from edemas and dropsy; mixed with butter and applied to longstanding sores, to help them heal quickly. Leaves boiled to make a strong tea, and the mixture held in the mouth to strengthen loose teeth. Juice from crushing leaves- applied to scorpion sting will neutralize the poison, also used to treat inflamed areas; mixed with either honey, sugar, or warm water and given to cure children with coughs, fever and bronchitis; also used to treat chronic cough.

Juice from grinding the leaves applied to treat fungus infections on the soles of the feet and between the toes. Roots : Ground and applied to bring down inflammation and infection in swellings, bumps, and sores. In India the root is placed on boils and glandular swellings; the bark is used for dropsy; and the leaf for toothache and rheumatism Jain and DeFilipps Nordal , Agricultural Corporation Myanmar : le-padu , su-padang.

English : hygrophila. In Myanmar, found in Bago. Leaf : Used in treating jaundice. Leaf, Root, Seed : Used as expectorant, and diuretic in dropsy. Root : Used to treat rheumatism. Seed : Employed as an aphrodisiac. The medicinal uses of this species in India are discussed in Jain and DeFilipps as follows: The whole plant is used for malarial fever; the leaf and seed as a diuretic, for jaundice, cough, dropsy, rheumatism, and urogenital diseases; the seed as an aphrodisiac; and the bulb for tubercular fistula, sores, skin cancer, dropsy, and swelling of the face and body.

Primarily the leaves are used for poulticing fresh wounds, sprained limbs, swellings, abscesses, boils, and headaches Perry Reported constituents in species belonging to this genus include an alkaloid; various enzymes; and linoleic, oleic, and ricinoleic acids Perry Myanmar : hsay-dan , meegyaung-kun-hpat , migyaung-kunbat.

English : Burma linseed. In Myanmar, found in Bago, Taninthayi, and Yangon. Seed : Used for making medicines to cure sore eyes, for flatulence, and for discoloration and fungal infections of the skin. Crushed and used as a poultice over festering and long-standing sores. In India the leaf is used for boils and headache Jain and DeFilipps In East and Southeast Asia, primarily the leaves are used for poulticing fresh wounds, sprained limbs, swellings, abscesses, boils, and headache Perry Agricultural Corporation Myanmar : my-yar-gyi , ye-magyi , htingra-hpraw Kachin , hla brairot Mon.

English : adulsa, Malabar nut tree. India, Sri Lanka, Malaysia, Myanmar. Cultivated in the tropics. Widely distributed in Myanmar. Whole plant : Used in medicine to remove phlegm, and for excessive menses. Leaf : Astringent and bitter, the leaves have cooling properties that regulate phlegm and bile, ease diarrhea, alleviate coughing and coughing up blood, and relieve chronic asthma.

They also alleviate coughing with fever, bad breath, and swellings in the lower extremities. To relieve pain and urinary infections, three tablespoons of liquid from boiling leaves, reduced to one-third starting volume, are ingested. Leaves dried in the shade, converted to ash, and ground to a fine powder can be pressed onto gums and teeth for toothaches, bleeding gums, and loose teeth. Leaves are also used to make medicines for eye ailments. Stewing the leaves and taking the liquid used to treat dysentery; also, for dysentery, male-related weaknesses, and excessive menstruation, liquid from boiling a handful of leaves in water reduced to one-third the starting volume is taken three times a day.

The juice of crushed young leaves with either wine or honey is used to treat whooping cough.

Leaf extract is antiseptic. Flower : About one tablespoon of the juice squeezed from the flowers and leaves can be taken with a moderate amount of rock sugar to for bile problems and for vomiting and otherwise passing blood. Fruit : For vomiting and otherwise passing blood, three tablespoons of liquid from kyazu Terminalia citirina fruit soaked in leaf juice can be taken. Root or Leaf : To treat asthma and coughs, one tablespoon of juice from the crushed roots or leaves mixed with moderate amounts of rock sugar and rock salt can be taken.

The root is also a component in insecticides. In India the species is used in Ayurvedic medicine as a blood purifier and antispasmodic, as well as a treatment for bronchitis, asthma, tuberculosis, coughing, and intestinal worms Jain and DeFilipps The first two have therapeutic properties. The alkaloid produces a slight fall in blood pressure followed by a rise to the original level, an increase persistent broncho-dilator effect.

In India the whole plant, macerated in rice Oryza sativa , is used as an antidote to snake poison Jain and DeFilipps Myanmar : hmaw-yan , paung-thaung , saingnan. English : Mexican petunia. Whole plant : Used as an antidote for snake poison. Leaf : Used to treat intermittent fever. Myanmar : kwa-nyo.


English : black-eyed Susan vine, bush clock-vine. Tropical and southern Africa. In Myanmar, found in Bago, Mandalay, and Yangon. In India the leaf is used as an ingredient of headache poultices Jain and DeFilipps Forest Department Myanmar : kyi-kan-hnok-thi , kyini-nwe , new-nyo , pan-ye-sut-nwe. English : laurel clock vine, laurel-leaved clockvine, laurel-leaved thunbergia, purple allamanda. Southeast Asia. In India leaf juice is placed in the ear to treat deafness and is drunk for menorrhagia Jain and DeFilipps In China the leaves are used as a remedy for excessive mensus and are also applied to wounds and ulcers.

On the Malay Peninsula juice from crushed leaves is taken and used in a poultice applied to cuts and boils; the juice is also put in the ear to treat deafness Perry Myanmar : kalaw , kalaw-so. English : chaulmoogra. Tropical Asia. Found growing in natural gullies and mountain slopes of Myanmar, including in Chin, Kachin, Kayin, areas around Pyinmana, and other evergreen forests.

Bark, Fruit , and Seed oil : bitter and hot have healing properties. Can be used to induce vomiting and neutralize poisons, as well as to alleviate aches, indigestion, flatulence, and infections. Bark : An ingredient in medicines to reduce fever. Fruit : Eaten as a remedy for leprous sores, boils, and vomiting. Applied topically for aches and pains; the oil is known for its blood-purifying properties. As the oil has heat, it can kill germs and is most commonly used to treat leprosy and other skin infections.

In India the bark is used for fever, the oil of the seed for leprosy Jain and DeFilipps The species is a source of chaulmoogra oil. Agricultural Corporation , Ministry of Health Myanmar : lin-ne , lin-lay. English : calamus, flagroot, sweet flag. Northern Hemisphere. Temperate and tropical Asia; found growing around ponds and streams in cool climates.

In Myanmar, grows wild and is also cultivated for use in home medicinal remedies. Of the two varieties of this species, the larger is used in traditional medicines. Rhizome : Preparations made from the rhizome are used to promote urinary flow, relieve constipation, and cleanse impurities from the body. The stewed rhizome is given for fever, coughs, and poisoning. A mixture of the rhizome that has been roasted until charred with oil is used as a rub applied topically to ease stomachaches and bloating in children.

A mixture of the rhizome with cashew oil is used as a rub to relieve swollen joints and sore muscles. A mixture of equal amounts of the dried rhizome with samone hpyu Trachyspermum ammi is burned to create smoke for inhaling as a cure for hemorrhoids. The rhizome powder is taken with warm milk for sore throat. A mixture of the rhizome with hsay-khar-gyi Andrographis paniculata is given to reduce fever.

To expel worms, a mixture of equal amounts of the rhizome with baked shein-kho Gardenia resinifera is given to children.

About the SABG [Southern African Bulb Group]

A mixture of the rhizome powder with dried ginger powder and honey is taken for partial paralysis of the mouth, chin, and cheek. A mixture of the rhizome powder with honey is licked as a cure for epilepsy and to treat loss of sanity. The medicinal uses of his species in India are discussed in Jain and DeFilipps Myanmar : pale-ban. English : Chinese elder, elderberry, Javanese elderberry.

Japan, Taiwan, southeastern Asia, Malaysian Archipelago. Here the whole plant is decocted for ague, bone ache, dropsy, spasms, swellings, and traumatic injuries; the leaf is used for pain and numbness, diseases of bones, and rheumatic problems; the fruit is employed as a depurative and purgative, and a decoction is used for injuries, skin disease, and swelling; the root is used for numbness, pain, rheumatic difficulties, and bone diseases. Myanmar : nantayok. English : Burmese storax. India and Myanmar to Java; also cultivated. In Myanmar, it is found in Kachin and Taninthayi. In India the resin is used on leucoderma and scabies; also for an antiscorbutic, carminative, stomachic, and expectorant Jain and DeFilipps In China it is used as a tonic, and liquid storax is used in a tonic and stimulant, considered especially good for chest complaints.

On the Malay Peninsula it is mixed with other drugs, and used as a tonic. In Indonesia the natives use the leaves for medicinal purposes Perry Reported constituents include essential oil, vanilline, cinnamic acid, styrolene, naphthalene, and caoutchouc Perry Myanmar : kyet-mauk-pyan , kyet-mauk-sue-pyan , naukpo. In Myanmar, found in Magway and Yangon. Leaf, Flowering Spike, Seed : Used as an emetic and antiasthmatic.

The medicinal uses of this species in India are discussed in Jain and DeFilipps as follows: The whole plant is used for cough; an infusion of the leaf in alcohol is used for leucoderma; leaf also used as an antidote for snakebite. The seed is emetic for hydrophobia. The root applied with the roots of Heteropogon contortus is used for caries of teeth, atrophy, emaciation, cachexy mixed with roots of three other species ; rheumatism ground with roots of Solanum surattense and pills of this mixture smoked , strangulation of the intestine ground with the roots of Randia uliginosa , betel Piper betle leaf and catechu, mixed with spirit, and administered ; scabies with other ingredients ; syphilis sores cooked with in oil with fruit of Datura and applied ; childbirth complaints ground with flowers of Artocarpus heterophyllus ; tiger and snakebite; diuretic; abortifcient, stops bleeding after abortion; bark of root use for malarial fever.

Myanmar : on-hnye. English : aerva, kapok bush, snow bush. Introduced in Australia and elsewhere. Root : Paste made and applied to acne-like conditions of the face. The species is used as a uricant Burkill ; also to treat kidney stones and for inflammation Zafar et al. The medicinal uses of another member of the genus Aerva in India are discussed in Jain and DeFilipps as follows: The whole plant is used for albumin in the urine; infant diarrhea; cholera; and dysentery. The leaf is used for earache; and the root is used for snakebite. Myanmar : pazun-sar , pazun-za.

English : dwarf copperleaf, joyweed, sessile joyweed. Now very widespread in the tropics and subtropics of both the Old and New Worlds, especially in damp or wet locations. In Myanmar, found in Yangon. The medicinal uses of this species in India are discussed in Jain and DeFilipps as follows: The root is used for hazy vision and night blindness in combination with four other species ; postnatal complaints ground with seeds of two other species and roots of a third ; prolapsus and fistula ani roots and leaves mixed with rice and salt ; diarrhea roots, bark, and fruit pulp of three other plants and some lime from shells ; fever with intense thirst in combination with other components ; dog, jackal and lizard bite with other plants ; also, an unspecified plant part is used for dysentery.

In China a broth of the plant is cooked with meat and taken for tuberculosis; a decoction with wine is used for internal injuries Duke and Ayensu Myanmar : hin-nu-nwe. Original habitat is obscure, probably tropical America. Thought to have originated from A.

Cape Bulbs: Their Collection, Cultivation and Conservation

It is found throughout the warmer regions of the word as an ornamental, and in some regions it is grown as a grain crop. Reported from Myanmar. Leaf , Seed : Used as laxative, blood purifier, diuretic, and soporific. In India the root of the species is used for dropsy Jain and DeFilipps Myanmar : hin-nu-new-subauk , khar-grope Mon. English : pigweed, soldier-weed, spiny amaranthus, spiny pigweed, thorny amaranthus. Whole plant : Leaves, roots, and whole plant used as a laxative, blood purifier, diuretic, and soporific.

Taking the crushed and squeezed juice from the plant will neutralize the venom in snake bites. Boiling the plant and taking it will keep help prevent miscarriages. Leaf : Cure nose bleeds.

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Eating the leaves cooked in a curry will cure pain in urination and kidney stones. Juice squeezed from leaves can be licked with honey to cure vomiting and passing of blood, excessive menstruation, white vaginal discharge, gonorrhea, and sores and bumps. Root : The paste of the root made with water will neutralize the poison if applied to the site of a scorpion sting. It can also be applied onto boils to cure them. Applying either the paste of the root or using the crushed root as a poultice will cure stiffness of the muscles. The paste made with water can be strained and taken once in the morning and once at night to cure excessive menstruation.

Jain and DeFilipps discuss the medicinal uses of the species in India, including use of the root as a laxative and abortifacient, and use of the leaf as a laxative. Medicinal use of this species in China is discussed by Duke and Ayensu Myanmar : kyet-mauk. Widely distributed in tropics; a common weed. Leaf , Flower , and Seed : Used as antipyretic, aphrodisiac, and vulnerary. In India the seed is used for eye diseases, clearing the eyes, to treat mouth sores and blood diseases, as an aphrodisiac, and for diarrhea Jain and DeFilipps Medicinal uses of this species is China are discussed in Duke and Ayensu Here the flowers are used for hemoptysis, metrorhagia, dysentery, hemoptysis, hemorrhoids, leucorrhea, menorrhagia; the stem for a poultice on sores, skin eruptions, swellings, and boils; the seed for diarrhea, painful micturiton, cough, dysentery; and for opthalmia.

The Chinese also poultice the seeds over broken bones and use the seed and herb as an anthelmintic an vermifuge. The whole plant is used for eye and liver ailments. Myanmar : myu. English : goosefoot, lambsquarters, pigweed. In India the seed is used to treat skin diseases Jain and DeFilipps In China juice from the stem is applied to freckles and sunburn; leaves are applied to insect bites, sunstroke, and as a wash for swollen feet; a decoction is used as a rinse for carious teeth Duke and Ayensu In China, in addition to the uses of juice from the fresh plant previously mentioned, the seeds are eaten as an anthelmintic.

In Indo-China the plant is used to treat blennorrhea in women Perry Reported chemical constituents include betaine, leucien, and essential oil Perry Myanmar : say-my. English : Mexican tea, strong-scented pigweed, wormseed. Whole plant : Used as an anthelmintic, especially for roundworms but also for hookworms, as well as a remedy for intestinal amoebae. Medicinal uses of this species in India are discussed in Jain and DeFilipps Perry discusses the medicinal uses of the species in general, and also gives its uses in Japan, Indo-China, and the Philippines.

Medicinal use, chemical constituents, pharmacological action, and of this species in Indian Ayurveda are discussed in detail by Kapoor Reported chemical constituents of the plant include volatile oil, ascaridol, geraniol, saponin, 1-limonene, p-cymene, and d-camphor Perry The chemistry, pharmacology, history and medicinal uses of this species in Latin America are discussed in detail by Gupta Details of the active chemical compounds, effects, herbal usage and pharmacological literature of this plant are given in Fleming Worldwide medicinal usage, chemical composition, and toxicity of this species are discussed by Duke Myanmar : kyet-thun-ni oo-gyi , shakau Kachin , kaisun Chin , canone casaun Mon.

English : garden onion, onion. Original range unknown; now only known in cultivation. Cultivated in all parts of Myanmar with the exception of the extremely cold regions. Root Bulb : Used in the treatment of flatulence, dysentery, and as a stimulant, diuretic and expectorant. Sweet and hot with some heating and diuretic properties, the onion is used to control flatulence, phlegm, fever and cough. It is also used to relieve nausea, stimulate the appetite, and fortify semen.

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Adults eat onion bulbs raw to alleviate urine blockages, but children with the same condition have roasted bulbs applied while still warm over the body area near the bladder. Children also drink onion juice mixed with sugar and chilled as a sherbet drink for diarrhea and infections that cause burning during urination. Mixed with a bit of sugar, half a tablespoon of fresh onion juice is ingested to treat bleeding hemorrhoids. Mixed with a bit of salt, onion juice is applied as eyedrops to alleviate night-blindness. For ear infections, either the warm juice of roasted onions or the juice of unroasted onions are used as eardrops.

The milky liquid from cut onions, mixed with edible lime, is applied to scorpion sting to neutralize the venom. The onion is also used in mixtures to treat trembling and weakness in men illness not specified in Agriculture Corporation , thinness and weakness in women illness not specified in Agriculture Corporation , pain from flatulence, and illnesses that cause chest pain. Seed : To increase vitality, onion seeds are crushed and ingested. Chemical constituents, pharmacological action, and medicinal use of this species in Indian Ayurveda are discussed in detail by Kapoor Toxicity of this species is discussed by Bruneton Traditional medicinal uses, chemical constituents and pharmacological activity of this species are discussed by Ross An extract of the dried plant was found to have a potent and prolonged hypoclycemic effect on artificially induced diabetes in rats and rabbits.

Myanmar : kyet-thun hpyu , casaun-phet-tine. English : garlic. Central Asia. In Myanmar, grown mostly in Shan State as a cultivated plant. Root Bulb : Garlic is used to support blood and eye health, alleviate fevers and skin disorders, increase perspiration and semen production, stimulate the bowel and the bladder, and to promote virility and longevity. A half teaspoon of garlic powder, steeped in honey and taken at bedtime, is used as a vitalizing tonic to stimulate appetite and promote healthy sleep.

It is used to break up phlegm, as well as to strengthen the blood and the gall bladder. Botanical Artists Association of Southern Africa. Botanical Art and Artists. Cape plants at home and in cultivation Information on the Cape flora and its conservation may be found on many sites, including: The Biodiversity and Wine Initiative — promotion of a sustainable and environmentally-friendly wine industry at the Cape. Website images and content copyright Mike and Liz Fraser and individual named photographers. Website links should open in a new window.